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Unlocking the Magnetic Secrets of Cobalt: The Essential Metal in Today’s Magnets

Unlocking the Magnetic Secrets of Cobalt: The Essential Metal in Today’s Magnets
Unlocking the Magnetic Secrets of Cobalt: The Essential Metal in Today’s Magnets
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Cobalt is a vital part of making strong magnets. These magnets are used in various techs from electric cars to green power systems. This post aims at explaining the importance of cobalt in creating high-performance magnets and what this means for future technologies by looking into its unique magnetic properties. We give a holistic view of how cobalt-based alloys have changed energy and electronic devices by examining metallurgic features while also pointing out challenges as well as opportunities brought about by this shift in the industry landscape. Readers will learn why, without doubt, cobalt should be included in any modern application that requires efficient or hardy magnets through expert insights combined with technical analysis.

Why is cobalt used in magnets?

The role of cobalt in magnetism

Cobalt is the most important element for magnets simply because it has a unique ability to increase the power of a magnet and make them work better. In my experience of studying and working with cobalt-based materials, I have noticed that this metal enhances the magnetic properties of alloys significantly, especially in Samarium-Cobalt (SmCo) and Neodymium-Iron-Boron (NdFeB) magnets, which are used in electric motors for wind turbines among other high-demand applications. Heat resistance or intrinsic coercivity against demagnetization at elevated temperatures and under physical stress are some features that make cobalt useful in such environments. This means that unlike those without it, cobalt-containing magnets will retain their performance over wider temperature ranges; hence, adding this element into the magnet manufacturing process leads not only to higher efficiency but also longer life devices, thus directly impacting the sustainability and reliability of contemporary technology.

Comparing magnetic properties: Cobalt vs. other metals

When talking about the magnetism of cobalt in relation to other metals, there are several important factors that need to be taken into account concerning a material’s performance in magnetic applications. These factors are saturation magnetization, coercivity, Curie temperature and energy product.

  • Saturation Magnetization – The parameter defines how much magnetism can be induced into a substance by an outside magnetic field. Cobalt alloys like SmCo or NdFeB magnets have high levels of saturation magnetizations when compared with magnets without cobalt hence they can store more magnetic energy leading to stronger magnetic fields.
  • Coercivity – This term refers to the ability of a material to resist changes in its magnetic state. High coercivities in cobalts produce long-lasting magnets that can retain their magnetism even when faced with strong demagnetizing fields caused by other external magnets. Such a property is useful where intense magnetostriction or magnet former effect might occur due to thermal cycling between hot and cold regions under loadings such as those experienced during seismic events or rapid heating/cooling cycles involving radio frequency induction heating methods used widely across many industrial sectors including telecommunications systems engineering science technology sector among others
  • Curie Temperature – It corresponds to the heat at which materials lose their permanent magnetism. Magnets with cobalt generally possess higher curie temperatures than those devoid of it, meaning that they can operate effectively under hotter conditions without becoming demagnetized, thus this feature being vital for use in areas where there are extreme temperatures
  • Energy Product – This value indicates maximum density obtainable from any given quantity; also known as BHmax). Because of higher contents therefore, smaller sizes may be produced, so devices should perform equally well or better compared against larger ones made using lower energy density providing materials.

Other metals have similar characteristics but none offer all these benefits simultaneously or with such intensity as those derived from enhanced magnetic properties inherent within cobalts containing magnets used for compactness superior performance and durability under harsh environments.

How cobalt enhances the magnetic strength of alloys

Cobalt is important for increasing the strength of magnets in alloys mainly because it raises a material’s magnetic anisotropy. The term “magnetic anisotropy” refers to the fact that magnetic properties of substances depend on direction, and this property helps determine how easily magnetization direction can be changed. Magnetic alloy demagnetization resistance is largely improved by cobalt, which makes it difficult for external fields to alter the direction of magnetization in materials. This is due to the high self-magnetization ability possessed by cobalt, which aligns more strictly magnetic domains within an alloy, thereby making overall magnetic strength higher across the whole substance, also containing other elements with similar chemical properties, as well as this metal itself being added into such mixtures. Not only does cobalt contribute towards enhancing resilience against demagnetization, but it also raises Curie temperature, hence allowing wider ranges over which magnets will maintain their attraction at different heat levels. What sets cobalt apart from other elements used in creating powerful permanent magnets able to withstand severe environments lies in its ability not only to improve thermal stability but also to increase energy product values when combined with suitable host lattice structures during fabrication processes essential for producing long-lasting hard magnets that can operate effectively under extreme conditions.

Exploring the magnetic properties of cobalt

Exploring the magnetic properties of cobalt

Understanding ferromagnetism in cobalt

Ferromagnetism in Co is an intriguing issue that reflects its broad application in modern technology. Ferromagnetism, at heart, is a basic process of how some materials like Co can either constitute permanent magnets or get attracted by them. The reason why cobalt shows ferromagnetic behavior lies in the fact that electron spins are aligned uniformly within its crystal lattice structure. Such ordering leads to strong magnetic fields thus making co suitable for various uses such as high-performance alloys and magnets among others.

  1. Electron Spin and Magnetic Moments: This implies that electron spins of cobalt atoms arrange themselves in a manner which maximizes the overall magnetic moment of the substance. This alignment is responsible for its strong ferromagnetic nature.
  2. Crystal Structure: Magnetic properties exhibited by this metal are greatly influenced by its hexagonal close-packed (hcp) crystal structure at room temperature. In other words, hcp promotes unidirectional alignment of magnetic moments hence enhancing ferromagnetism.
  3. Curie Temperature: It should be noted that Co has a Curie temperature around 1121°C where it loses all ferromagnetic property becoming paramagnetic. Because of very high curie temperature values shown by cobalt-based magnets they can remain permanently magnetized over wide range operational temperatures.
  4. Magnetic Anisotropy: Another reason why co is used as a recording medium for hard drives is due to its large magnetic anisotropy energy density, which enables it to maintain particular direction magnetization after being magnetized.

Understanding these parameters helps justify cobalt’s indispensability in creating strong, durable magnets suitable for high-tech applications, thus showing how unique it is within the materials science ecosystem.

The impact of temperature on cobalt’s magnetic properties

Cobalt is affected by temperature in terms of its magnetism. It has been my observation as a professional in this industry that cobalt changes from being ferromagnetic to paramagnetic when it reaches the Curie temperature at around 1121°C. This shift implies an absence of regularized magnetic moments whereby atoms gain adequate kinetic energy to overpower their magnetic alignment energies. At lower temperatures than this, the peculiar electron arrangement and crystal structure of cobalt work together to retain strong magnetic properties, hence making it useful for stable thermal environments. Cobalt’s ability not only to withstand heat but also its high curie point makes it suitable for use in applications where continuous magnetic performance is required under higher temperatures; these being key considerations for advanced technology fields such as aerospace or electric vehicles, which operate across wide ranges of conditions.

Magnetic Domains and Cobalt’s Magnetic Moment

For magnetics-based applications, the magnetic moment and magnetic domains are essential concepts in cobalt’s magnetic properties. Magnetic domains are regions in a material where atoms’ magnetic moments align parallel to each other, thereby giving rise to observable magnetism within substances. Cobalt demonstrates high anisotropy of magnetization, and thus, these regions have more strict alignment, which allows for keeping its orientation even when acted upon by outside magnetic fields.

On the contrary, cobalt’s magnetic moment is an indication of how strong it can be magnetized as well as what direction this may take place in because many factors such as electron configuration and crystal structure mainly influence them. For instance, among other elements having unpaired electrons within d-orbital which accounts for its large overall magnetic properties due to their contribution towards increased values thereof. Such higher values are necessary if we want to create powerful permanent magnets that require strong fields like those found inside MRI machines or particle accelerators used by physicists while conducting experiments.

These two quantities namely magnetic domains and moments, depend on some key parameters during formation process, which are:

  1. Magnetic Anisotropy: This is a measure of how much the properties change with direction. In simple terms, it refers to whether or not certain materials exhibit different characteristics depending on their orientation relative to applied external fields. Magnetic anisotropy helps stabilize domain alignment in cobalt by making them resistant to collapsing into one another, hence enhancing the ability to maintain a strong uniform field throughout the sample.
  2. Crystal Structure: Relates closely with symmetry features exhibited by arrangement patterns adopted between constituent particles making up bulk matter at atomic level so as give rise various physical behaviours including magnetism among others too. Crystal structures play very important role in determining overall response of materials towards surrounding environment.
  3. Temperature: The average kinetic energy of particles constituting any substance determines its thermal state known as temperature which influences all aspects concerning behavior displayed by such objects under given conditions i.e., heat capacity etcetera. Thermal energy begin to disrupt domain alignment as temperature increases approaching Curie point (≈1121°C for cobalt) hence affecting magnetic moment of the material. Below this particular temperature, cobalt does not lose its magnetic properties easily.

One has to understand these parameters to appreciate why cobalt remains an ideal choice when coming up with high-performance magnets. The inherent magnetic nature characterized by domains and moments is what makes it valuable in applications where there is need for exceptional stability or strength.

Types of magnets: Where does cobalt stand?

Types of magnets: Where does cobalt stand?

The difference between samarium cobalt magnets and rare-earth neodymium magnets

Permanent magnet materials have made great progress and discovery over the years. For instance, samarium cobalt (SmCo) magnets and rare-earth neodymium (NdFeB) magnets are considered as some of the best permanent magnetic materials due to their unique features that arise from their inherent properties.

  • Composition and Structure: SmCo magnets were the first type to be discovered among rare earth metals since they were made up of samarium and cobalt. They possess excellent thermal stability as well as high resistance against demagnetization. On the other hand, NdFeB magnets consist of neodymium, iron, and boron, which gives them a second-generation classification; these kinds have the highest energy product ever recorded for any material, thus making them very powerful per unit volume.
  • Magnetic Performance: In comparison with SmCo magnets, NdFeB ones exhibit much stronger magnetic field strength that can be advantageous where space or weight is concerned most especially when size reduction matters a lot. Nevertheless, even though such magnetics are not affected by higher temperatures up to 300°C like SMCO counterparts, they begin losing their power once it reaches 200°C, which shows that ndfeb still has got good operational points too at different levels of heat intensity.
  • Temperature Sensitivity: The temperature coefficient of ndfeb is relatively higher hence its magnetic properties deteriorate quickly with increasing temperatures than those of samarium-cobalt whose degradation rate is slower due to lower coefficients numbers thereby making sintered smcos preferable for use under fluctuating or elevated temp environment.
  • Corrosion Resistance: NdFeb magnets corrode easily if exposed without protection while SmCo does not require additional shielding since they are resistant enough towards rusting even in humid conditions.
  • Cost and Availability Factors Affecting Choice Between Samarium Cobalt and Neodymium Magnets – Although neodymium is more abundant than samarium so it should follow that NDFEB would be cheaper, but this isn’t always the case. NdFeb magnets are cheaper and readily available in most markets than SMCO, which means that they can be easily found by any consumer, but there are certain industries where only SmCo will do due to its high cost coupled with extreme performance requirements, especially when dealing with military operations or aerospace applications.

In conclusion, one must take into account magnetic strength needed for an application, thermal stability required, demagnetization resistance expected among other factors before settling on either samarium cobalt or neodymium magnet types; each has different advantages thus making them useful in various technological fields such as medicine or manufacturing industries among others.

Alnico vs. Cobalt magnets: Which is stronger?

When it comes to magnetic power, Cobalt-based magnets –especially Samarium Cobalt (SmCo)– are known for their stronger magnetic properties. Temperature stability and resistance to demagnetization are the outstanding features of Alnico which consists of aluminium, nickel and cobalt. However, not only do SmCo magnets offer high resistance to demagnetization and thermal stability, but they also have higher levels of magnetism. This implies that SmCo magnets are more useful in applications where there is a need for a strong magnetic field in small size or space. Hence while Alnico has its own advantages and uses but it still cannot beat Cobalt-based ones when we talk about magnetism strength..

The unique properties of cobalt in ferrite magnets

Cobalt, when mixed with ferrite magnets, increases its magnetic properties by a large amount. In my technical and professional opinion, adding cobalt to the structure of ferrites greatly raises coercivity and magnetic saturation. This is due to the fact that cobalt atoms increase anisotropy which in turn enhances the ability of a magnet to maintain its magnetization in the presence of external magnetic fields. Also, modified ferrites containing cobalt do not lose their magnetism easily but besides having stronger magnetic strength than pure ferrite magnets do. Such unusual features render them very useful for specific applications where there are space limitations or high levels of magnetic performance are required. And so their increased toughness under higher temperatures makes them even more preferable over other types, especially in industry and technology-related settings where such things can be found most often.

The future of cobalt magnets and magnetic technology

The future of cobalt magnets and magnetic technology

Advances in magnetic alloy development

Cobalt magnets and magnetic technology will be greatly affected by the developments made in magnetic alloy advancement. Research in industry is focusing more on improving the properties of magnetism through modifying the compositions of alloys while at the same time considering cheapness and availability of materials. Among other things, this involves creating new cobalt based alloys that are better thermally stable or have higher magnetic performances. Researchers may also replace rare elements with common ones but still ensure that strength and efficiency of a magnet is not compromised. In addition to this, nanostructuring has enabled scientists come up with cobalt permanent magnets having high coercivity as well as energy product density (which were unattainable before). Not only do these breakthroughs create wider uses for magnets produced from cobalt, but they also make them eco-friendly and economically viable through the utilization of nanotechnology achievements.

The role of cobalt in next-generation magnetic applications

The importance of cobalt in the next generation of magnetic applications is without question. It has unique magnetic properties that contribute mainly to magnets’ high coercivity and thermal stability. From an industry expert’s perspective, cobalt is a crucial element for making high-performance magnets necessary for driving many technological advancements forward. For example, magnets based on this material can work reliably under extreme operational conditions, such as those found in electric vehicle motors, wind turbine generators, and different types of precision medical equipment, among others. Furthermore, as we enter further into the digital era, there arises the need for more efficient compact long-lasting magnetic storage devices, too, where again cobalt comes into play. This means that its role in improving hard disk drives’ efficiency while at the same time potentially impacting the development of next-generation magnetic memory technologies cannot be ignored. Indeed, overall, it remains true that no other element is so much involved with innovation in magnetics than cobalt, which continues shaping various industries’ futures through advanced magnetic solutions reliance.

Challenges in cobalt supply and alternatives

Cobalt, though indispensable for technological growth, is confronted by several supply-side issues that have the potential of affecting its availability and cost. In the first place, political instability in key cobalt-producing areas, especially the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), which contributes a significant fraction of global production, may disrupt smooth supply chains. Secondly, ethical concerns with mining practices such as child labor or environmental degradation have pushed for sustainable sourcing, hence complicating procurement processes further.

In light of these circumstances, different options are being considered by industry players so as to reduce reliance on cobalt. They include:

  1. Substitution of materials: There are ongoing studies on finding other substances that can be used in magnets instead of cobalt or those that require much lesser amounts but do not compromise performance levels greatly; one example being rare earth magnets without cobalt.
  2. Recycling: Improving how we recycle electronic waste could create better supply chains for this mineral thereby making them more sustainable not only from an ethical standpoint but also environmentally speaking; additionally it helps to lower risks associated with supplies failing to meet demand.
  3. Advancements in Materials Science: Material science breakthroughs are enabling researchers come up with nano structured materials and alloys with properties similar or even better than those made from cobalt based magnets but less reliant on it.
  4. New Discoveries through Exploration and Development: Efforts are being made towards finding fresh reserves outside politically volatile regions where there is already active mining going on; this would diversify sources thus stabilizing prices while ensuring steadier supply over time.
  5. Transparency within Supply Chains: It is becoming increasingly necessary to use blockchain technology, among other traceability methods, so as to ascertain whether ethical standards were followed during the acquisition process – these can serve as guarantees for both consumers and industrial players who might be interested in knowing where their cobalt came from.

The industry hopes that through material innovation coupled with recycling initiatives as well as responsible sourcing practices will help ensure a sustainable future for cobalt vis-a-vis its use in driving technological advancement.

How cobalt magnets are made and used

How cobalt magnets are made and used

The process of creating samarium cobalt magnets

The manufacturing of samarium cobalt (SmCo) magnets involves a highly controlled sequence of metallurgical procedures. To start with, the raw materials, which are samarium and cobalt, pass through a stage where they get melted so that they can be combined in accurate proportions, often done under vacuum or inert gas to avoid contamination. Later on, this alloy is cooled down and then crushed into fine powders, which is the most important part in order to obtain the desired magnetic properties. After this step, the powder undergoes pressing under magnetic fields to align its particles, thereby determining the future directional strength of the magnet. The compressed shape is then sintered, a high-temperature process that heats up particles until they fuse together without melting them, thus creating a strong, compact magnet. Finally, aging treatments are conducted on these magnets, followed by precision machining. If necessary, surface treatment may also be applied at last . Such series ensures the production of Samarium Cobalt Magnets with excellent magnetic properties for use in aerospace or military industries, among other sectors where reliability is required under extreme conditions.

Industrial and technological applications of cobalt magnets

Cobalt magnets, in particular samarium cobalt (SmCo) magnets, are valued for their strong thermal stability and resistance to demagnetization in various industrial and technological applications. This makes them ideal for use in environments that are exposed to high temperatures or require consistent performance over a wide range of temperatures.

  1. Aerospace and Defense: In aerospace, reliability is everything – especially when it comes to components operating at extreme temperatures. SmCo magnets find use across multiple aerospace applications such as sensors, actuators, and electric motors, among others, that are crucial for the functionality of both aircraft and space vehicles. They can weather temperature swings while keeping up efficiency thus ensuring safety during space missions.
  2. Electric Motors and Generators: High-performance electric motors particularly those used in hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs) benefit greatly from SmCo magnets. These compact yet powerful magnets make it possible for developers to create efficient motors which can operate well under the thermal strain associated with high-speed EV charging as well as travel.
  3. Medical Devices: In medical settings, different tools, such as samarium cobalt magnets, like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines, are needed, where steady magnet fields are vital. Their resistance against de-magnetization guarantees accuracy when using these diagnostic devices which save lives every day.
  4. Military Applications: Precision-guided munitions & radar systems employed by armed forces heavily rely on SmCo magnets because they do not become easily demagnetized while being used within varied military equipment environments.
  5. Industrial Processing At High Temperatures: Many manufacturing processes entail having magnets that do not lose their magnetic properties even at elevated temps. For such operations samarium cobalt based permanent magnets should be adopted to ensure reliability and efficiency during high temperature operations.

In summary, these features have made Samarium Cobalt Magnets very important elements across industries where heat endurance is required along side non-attraction loss properties. The usage of this material therefore improves performance reliability as well advancing technology under extreme conditions within these areas.

Maintaining the magnetic properties of cobalt alloys over time

In order to keep the magnetic properties of cobalt alloys in a sustainable state for a long time, we must first know what causes them to deteriorate. It could be through high temperatures or physical stress among others. One way is by not letting these magnets come into contact with temperatures higher than their Curie temperature which can alter permanent magnetism significantly. Furthermore, coatings that protect against corrosion should be put on otherwise performance of the magnet may diminish due to this.

Another thing is how they are handled and stored so as not to expose them to physical stress or environments which would demagnetize them or change their magnetic alignment. When using samarium cobalt magnets under extreme conditions it is important that an alloy with best composition for such application is chosen. Also regular checks need to be done on its working state so any drop in magnetic properties can be detected early enough.

Based on my experience within this sector; incorporating these measures into life cycle management of samarium cobalt magnets greatly enhances sustainability in terms of their magnetic characteristics thus enabling continued use across different fields.

Reference sources

  1. Online Article – “Exploring Cobalt’s Role in Modern Magnetism”
    • Source: MagnetWorld.com
    • Summary: This is an online article that talks about cobalt’s importance in modern magnet technology. It shows its magnetic properties and uses. Its focus is on how it helps create high-performance magnets and where it’s applied, such as the electronics industry, renewable energy sector, or medical equipment production, among others. This text also explains what makes this metal unique as a magnet material today which gives readers more understanding about its relevance in magnetic applications now.
  2. Scientific Journal Article – “Magnetic Behavior of Cobalt Alloys: A Comparative Study”
    • Source: Materials Science Research Journal
    • Summary: This scientific paper was published by one of the reputable materials science journals and presents a comparative study on the magnetic behavior of cobalt alloys. The work investigates various environments and applications for different types of cobalt-based alloys with regard to their magnetic properties, crystal structures, and performance characteristics therein exhibited. It further probes into the underlying mechanisms governing these aspects as well as how they are influenced by alloying elements. This research should be interesting to any person involved in science-related investigations into magnets made from or containing cobalt.
  3. Manufacturer Website – “Cobalt Magnets: Innovating Magnetic Solutions by TechMagnetics”
    • Source: TechMagnetics.com
    • Summary:There are many kinds of magnets made out of cobalt available on the website TechMagnetics. They have been designed according to different industrial needs so that every sector is catered for through this company’s products. The pages give clear information about what each type does best, including its strength, temperature stability, or resistance against demagnetization, among others, which may affect its efficiency under certain conditions where other materials fail to perform adequately. There also exists case studies that show where these devices work better than any other such situation could arise, hence proving them reliable too, even when used in harsh environments like those found at sea level.

 

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Q: What is it that gives a metal the ability to be magnetic, and where does cobalt come into play?

A: A metal is said to be magnetic when it contains many atoms with unpaired electrons that can align themselves in an external magnetic field thereby producing its own persistent magnetism. Cobalt is a ferromagnetic substance; like iron or nickel, it possesses natural magnetism resulting from the presence of unpaired electrons in its electron configuration which causes strong attraction towards magnets.

Q: Why do we consider cobalt as an essential material for making magnets?

A: In the manufacturing process of magnets, cobalt plays an important role because of its high magnetic strength and retention under high temperatures which is facilitated by having a high Curie temperature. This means that without cobalt strong permanent magnets used in electric motors and generators among other applications cannot be produced.

Q: How does magnetization function with cobalt-based magnetic materials?

A: When exposed to an external magnetic field, magnetization within cobalt as well as any other ferromagnetic material involves alignment of electron’s magnetic moments localized on different individual atoms comprising this substance. These aligned atoms then create powerful local fields around them so if kept below Curie Temp they would behave like permanent magnets.

Q: What are some major properties that make cobalt a good metal for use in strong magnets?

A: Cobalt possesses several inherent ferromagnetic features that account for its strength as a magnetic material, such as its ability to retain large magnetic moments due to the presence of unpaired electrons. Another property exhibited by this element includes relatively higher values of Curie temperatures than those observed in most metals hence enabling it maintain magnetism at elevated temperatures when demagnetization might occur in other metallic materials; these characteristics contribute greatly towards creating powerful magnets.

Q: Can non-magnetic metals be detected using cobalt?

A: Cobalt isn’t used directly to detect non-magnetic metals, but its magnetic properties make it useful in metal detectors. The magnetic field produced by cobalt-based magnets in such devices is disrupted by metals, thus allowing the detection of different types of metals, including those that are not magnetic, through the disturbance caused by the magnetic field.

Q: What does cobalt do for rare earth magnets?

A: Cobalt plays a large role in improving the performance of rare-earth magnets; this is especially seen when it comes to their resistance to demagnetization and ability to work at higher temperatures. Magnets made from alloys that combine neodymium with cobalt or another rare earth metal have better magnetic properties than those made from any other material, which makes them very suitable for applications requiring strong stable magnetic fields.

Q: How does an external magnetic field affect the magnetism of cobalt?

A: An external magnetic field affects the magnetism of cobalt by aligning dipoles between its atoms hence increasing overall magnetic field strength. This alignment raises magnetization until saturation point is reached whereby after removal from external magneic feild significant amount of induced magnetisation remains within cola demonstrating its ferromegnetic property..

Q: Why aren’t some metals attracted to magnets while others, like cobalt, are ferromagnetic?

A: Metallic materials lack attraction towards a magnet due to the absence of unpaired electrons within their atomic structure or when these electron spins cannot orient so as produce a net moment of magnetism.

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Greetings, readers! I’m Liang Ting, the author of this blog. Specializing in CNC machining services for twenty years now, I am more than capable of meeting your needs when it comes to machining parts. If you need any help at all, don’t hesitate to get in touch with me. Whatever kind of solutions you’re looking for, I’m confident that we can find them together!

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